Biological Bases of Behavior

Unit Question: How does our biology affect our behavior?
Answer: Genes affect your likeliness of having a certain trait and these genes affect traits such as behavior.

LEQ 1: How does the building block of the nervous system , the neuron, work?
Answer: They recieve, integrate and transmit information from gap between neurons called the synapse and sends neurotransmitters between them. The information tells our brains to perform certain functions such as the raising of our hands in class, and the information also tells us how to react/ feel in certain situations (emotions and sensations).

LEQ 2: How does the nervous system break down into different components?
Answer: Its broken down into the Central Nervous System ( brain and spinal cord ), and the Peripheral Nervous System, and then in the Peripheral Nervous System its split in the Somatic ( controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles ), and then the Autonomic Nervous System ( controls self regulated actions of internal organs and glands ) from the Autonomic Nervous System it goes to the Sympathetic Nervous System ( arousing ) and then finally the Parasympathetic Nervous System ( calming )

LEQ 3A: How is the human brain the most complex machine in the universe?
Answer: The brain contains many different parts in which each part plays a different role in the functioning of our bodies. Some parts are related to emotional and mental figures while others control physical things such as movement.

LEQ 3B: Why is there a difference between left-brained and right-brained?
The left brain is better suited for language, speech, reading, and writing, while the right side is better suited for spatial tasks, music, visual recognition, and emotions. No one is ever completely left-brained or right-brained, but one side of the brain may be dominant over the other which can determine whether someone is good at creative and expressive things (right) or whether they are good with logic, language, and analyzation (left).

Concept 1: The Neuron
Words to Know: Neuron, Synapse, Neurotransmitter

concept 2: The nervous system
Words to know: Central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, somatic, autonomic, sympathetic, parasympathetic

concept 3: The brain
Words to know: Four lobes of the brain, brain hemispheres, endocrine systems, cerebral cortex, forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, corpus callosum, hemisphere dominance

Words To Know:
Neuron- Cells in a nervous system that recieve, intergrate and transmit information
Synapse- Gap between axon terminal of one nueron and dendrite of another nueron
Neurotransmitter- Travel across the synapse to carry information from one nueron to another
Central nervous system- made up of the brain and spinal chord; the brain is broken into the midbrain(contains reticular formation), forebrain(contains cerebrum, limbic system, thalamus, and hypothalamus), and hindbrain(contains reticular formation, cerebellum, pons, and medulla).
Peripheral nervous system- connects all sensory nerves and moter nerves that connect brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body
Somatic-Controlls body's skeleton muscles
Autonomic-controlls glands and muscles of the internal organs
Sympathetic- arouses body and mobilizes its energy in stressfull situations
Parasympathetic- calms body's conserved energy
Frontal lobe- controls abstract thought and emotions
Parietal lobe- recieves incoming touch sensations
Termporal lobe- processes sound sensed by ears
Occipital lobe- interpets messages from eyes to understanding
Brain hemispheres- left hemisphere and right hemisphere; The left hemisphere controls language, reasoning, numbers, and analytical thinking. The right hemisphere controls emotions, music, the recognition of faces, and creativity.
Endocrine systems-contains endocrine glands and the hormones they release, made up of adrenal, parathyroid, pituitary, and thyroid glands along with ovaries or testes and the pancreas.
Cerebral cortex-wrinkled outter surface of the brain
Forebrain-responsible for proccessing and recieving sensory information,thinking, percieving, and producing and understanding language
Midbrain-controls hearing, vision, eye movement and body movement
Hindbrain-controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
Corpus Callosum- allows both sides of the brain to communicate
Hemisphere Dominance- when each side of the brain is in charge for a certain activity

5 Interesting Facts
1) In a child developing inside the womb, neurons grow at the rate of 250,000 neurons per minute
2) At a given point of time, only four percent of the cells in the brain are active, the rest are kept in reserve
3)The human spinal chord consists of around 13,500,000 neurons. The cluster of nerves located at the base of the spinal chord are most sensitive.
4)In humans, the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, while the left side of the brain controls the right side.
5)There are millions of nerve cells in the human body. This number even exceeds the number of stars in the Milky Way

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