Unit 4- Consciousness
Unit EQ: How do you define the different stages of Consciousness?
Answer:Different states of consciousness are associated with different brain wave patterns. Brain waves are tracings that show the kind of electrical activity going on in the brain. The main types of brain waves are alpha, beta, theta, and delta.
Concept 1: Levels of Consciousness
*Words to Know: Consciousness, Construct, Pre-Conscious, Unconscious, and Nonconscious
*LEQ 1: How is consciousness defined?
Answer: Awareness of things inside and outside of ourselves.
Concept 2: Altered states of Consciousness
*words to know: Altered states, Meditation, Hypnosis, and Biofeedback
*LEQ 2A: How do you alter your state of consciousness?
Answer: When your sense of self or the world changes(sensations/Perceptions change).
*LEQ 2B: How do you do Hypnosis, Meditation, and Biofeedback?
Answer: You can do Hypnosis if people's minds around you are open for being manipulated or open to suggestions. You can do meditation by praticing focusing your attention by using relaxing music or relaxing routines. Lastly, biofeedback is basically another form or meditation. So, you can do similar things because biofeedback is just relieving your body of chronic stress.
*LEQ 2C: How do drugs affect your consciousness?
Answer:Drugs work by affecting neurotransmitter function in various ways.The effect of any drug depends on many factors such as the amount of the drug, how the drug is administered, and the user’s mood, personality, and motivation.Chronic use of drugs can result in tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, physical dependence, or psychological dependence.
Concept 3: Nature of Sleep
*Words to know: Circadion rhythms, sleep deprivations, Rapid Eye Movement(REM), Insomnia, Night terrors, Sleep Apnea, Narcolopsy, Dream Analysis, Lucid dreaming
*LEQ 3A: How do you get a good night's sleep?
Answer: 1.Never oversleep 2. Set your body clock- light helps, so get outside as much as possible. 3. Excercise 4. Try to refrain from naps by getting up and being active 5. Go to bed around the same time each night and if you cant sleep don't force yourself.
*LEQ 3B: How are dreams analyzed?
Answer: Dreams are analyzed based on emotions and personal experiences. these analyzation also give you a deeper understanding of yourself.
*LEQ 3C: Why do sleep problems occur, and how can they be resolved?
Answer: Unhealthy conditions, disorders and diseases can cause sleep problems. Sleeping problems can be resolved by warm baths, hot milk, no food before bed, relaxation techniques, and prescription and homeopathic medicines. Depending on the extent of the sleeping problem it may call for a different treatment. Some problems are never resolved and only can be treated.

Types of Sleep:

a. Non- REM
1. Stage 1- lasts for about 1-5 minutes, 2-5% of night sleep, theta waves, alpha waves, between awake and asleep.
2. Stage 2- "baseline" of sleep, part of 90 minute cycle, 45-60% of sleep
3. Stage 3- "Delta", the "slow wave", occurs for 15-30 minutes, name comes from brain activity slowing down from "theta" to "delta"
4. Stage 4- "Delta" is the deepest sleep, sleep-deprived, 40% for children
b. REM- very active, 20-25% of sleep, vivid dreams occur, go back to Stage 2, breathing, heart rate, and brain activity are active

6 Interesting facts:
1. Unconsciousness will occur after 8-10 seconds after loss of blood supply to the brain.
2. Our most vivid dreams occur during REM sleep.
3. People who have quit smoking are said to have longer, more intense dreams.
4. Approximately two hours of your sleep at night is you dreaming
5. About 5 minutes after a dream occurs, 50% of the content is forgotten and in about 10 minutes after a dream, 90% of the content is forgotten.
6. Children spend around 40% of their sleep in Stage 4 and this is why you can carry/pick them up without then awakening.

Sleep Disorders:

1.Insomnia- Recurring issues in falling not falling asleep, or being able to sleep for at least 2 weeks. A simple restless night does not constitute as making you an Insomniac.
2. Narcolapsy- When a person Has sleep attacks, of which are not able to be controlled.
3. Sleepwalking- Sleep disorder in which people cannot control themselves/ their movements while they sleep.
4.Sleep Apnia- When a, more often than not overweight male, constantly wakes up in the middle of sleeping because they cannot get enough oxygen. Most commonly noticed by the loud snoring they do.
5. Nightmares and night terrors- Sleep disorders in which people have high arousal and have the look of being terrified. Most similar to sleepwalking yet very violent.


1. Sigmund Freud- Said that Dreams reflect unacceptable or painful repressed behaviors or tendancies. Dreams in symbols but each symbol is innapropriate
2. Alfred Alder- Theorized that Dreams are time that can be used for problem solving.
3.Carl Jung- Dreams are the communication between the conscious and unconscious.
4. Frederick Perls- Dreams are an interpretaion of the parts of ourselves that are rejected and symbols in dreams are unique to each person.

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SOURCES: My packet,