Unit 1: History and Perspectives


The true definition of psychology is the scientific study of behavior and cognitive mental processes.
We study psychology to learn more about one another, to know how the brain really works, why people do
what they do, and to get into some sort or social work. Psychology may be useful in the workforce because it will
help you understand how to cooperate with people.
Down below will be some important aspects that may be helpful in psychology.





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Back in ancient times, when someone thought you had lost your mine, they used a process called Trepanning in which they cut open your skull to let the "bad" souls out. In today's society we have 6 modern perspectives that may be helpful:


1. BEHAVIORISM- School of thought that focuses on how much our genes and our environment influences our individual differences.
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2.SOCIO-CULTURAL- School of thought that focuses on how thinking of behavior changes in different contexts or situations.
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3. COGNITIVE- How people think and how they take in, process, store and retrieve information.
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4. HUMANISM- It focuses on conscious experience, individual freedom to choose the capably for personal growth.

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5. PSYCHOANALYSIS- Helping behavior spring from unconscious, drives and conflicts.
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6. BIOLOGICAL- An attempt to diagnose, treat and explain how a disease disrupts normal functioning.
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Back in history there were 3 Big Issues' and they were:
  1. NATURE VS. NURTURE - how much of our behavior is due to heredity and how much is due to the environment?
  2. CONSCIOUS VS. UNCONSCIOUS-how much of our behavior is produced by forces of which we are fully aware?
  3. OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR VS. INTERNET BEHAVIOR- should [[#|psychology]] only focus on what it can see?



The difference between a Psychiatrist and a Psychologist is....
PSYCHOLOGIST
  • analyze and treat disorders
  • generally use a non-medical approach
  • attend graduate school- pH.D, Ed.D or Psy.D
PSYCHIATRIST
  • anylyze and treat disorders
  • attend a medical school and earn M.D.
  • Complete term of residency at a hospital
  • branch of medicine that deals with psychological disorders



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In the past if you acted different or had strange ideas people thought you had a bad spirit (possessed) or you were associating with satan. If you were accused of this they either inspected you in front of many people to see if you had strange markings such as moles or birth marks. Also, if they thought it was because you had a spirit in you they would drill a hole in your skull to release the spirit (triphining).
Target Population- People about whom we are trying to draw conclusions
Placebo Effect- An active pill that has no known effect
Stratified Sample- Participants who are chosen to reflect your target population
Experimental Group- The participants are exposed to the treatment
Control Group- The participants are not exposed to the treatment
Single/Doube Blind- Both the data collectors and research participants do not know the expected outcome of the experiment
Independent Variable- The variable that the researcher will actively manipulate and, if the hypothesis is correct, that will cause a change in the dependent variable
Dependent Variable- The variable that should show the effect of the independent variable
Volunteer Bias- The volunteer has to be willing to participate in the experiment
Random Sample- A sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included
Correlation- The degree to which two variables are related to eachother

How was research used [[#|in Psychology]]?
Scientist use the scientific method, a method of learning about the world through the [[#|application]] of critical thinking and tools such as observation, experimentation, and statistical analysis.
How are Psychology surverys conducted?
Samples of people are questioned to collect information about their attitude or behaviors. A random sample represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included.

How are different methods of observation used and analyzed?
- Case Study: A research technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principals
- Cross-Sectional Study: Compares people from different age groups at one time
-Longitudinal Study: Follows the same gorup of people over a long period of time
- Naturalistic Observation: Observing and recording behavior in naturally ocurring situations without manipulating or controlling the situation
-Laboratory Observation: Create an artificial scenario in a labratory to observe and record behaviors
- Correlational Research: Determines the strength of the relationship between two variables

How do ethics play a role in research?
Ethical guidlines are in place to protect the rights of both humans and animals in research. These guidlines include informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, and debriefing.