Unit 10-Human Development

Unit EQ: How do you progress through the different stages of life?
When you are first born you learn simple aspects of life, like how to walk and read. As you go through adolescence and life, you experience trials and challenges as you grow morally, and cognitively, and you personality continues to grow. As you grow older you begin to truly find out who you are and discover your goals in life. Your identity becomes clearer.

Concept 1: Childhood
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Words to Know:
Cephalocaudal trend: The tendency for physical development to begin with the head and move down towards the feet. This means babies are able to move their head and look around before they can walk.
Proximodistal trend: The tendency for physical development to start in the center and move toward the limbs. That means that babies can sit before they use there fingers to pick up something.
Temperament: A baby's characteristic. There are three types of temperaments, they are easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up.
Attachment: An emotion connection formed between two people, typically a parent and their child.
Unconditional positive regard: Loving and accepting someone no matter what they do
Piaget's stages of cognitive development: a four stage theory where children move through the stages as they get older. The first stage is sensorimotor, where children use their senses to learn. The second is Pre-operational, where objects in the world can be represented with symbols. The third is Concrete Operational, where you can think logically and use analogies. The last stage is Formal Operation, where you can reason abstractly.
Maturation: Changes in physical development, like nerve cells forming nueral networks, which continues occuring throuought your teenage years.
Schema:A concept that organizes and interprets information.
Separation anxiety: When a child feels stressed or unhappy when they are taken away from their parents or caregiver.
Contact comfort: The one thing stronger than the need for food, is the need to be touched by something soft or warm. This was proven by Harry Harlow with his Monkey experiments.
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LEQ 1A: How do you physically develop in the womb and during your first year?
A newly fertilized egg is called a zygote. By about 2 weeks they zygote becomes a embryo that is producing major organs and has a heartbeat. At 9 weeks it is considered a fetus. A placenta is formed that is a cushion of cells to protect the fetus by filtering out waste and allowing oxygen and nutrients in.

LEQ 1B: According to Piaget, how do children develop cognitively?
Children develop as they grow older. They begin by simple learning to categorize things into schema's. As they grow older the learn to give symbols to objects in the world. Around the age of 2-7 they can not see things from others point of view, or understand the law of conservation, that is when you change the shape the mass will remain the same. As children get older they can begin to thing logically, and by the last stage they can reason abstractly.

LEQ 1C: How do you raise a child with self-esteem?
To encourage and help children to have a high self-esteem they need to feel loved. They need to feel like the have a strong attachment and that their parents will love them no mater what (Unconditional positive regard). When they have outstanding accomplishments they need to learn how to value those accomplishments.

Concept 2: Adolescence

Words to Know:
Erikson's stages of personality development: 8 stages that play an important role in forming personality as you grow from and infant to an adult.
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Social Clock: The ages that you expect certain events in your life to occur, like graduation and marriage.
Kohlberg's stages of moral development: A theory with three levels and 6 stages. The Pre-conventional Level where consequences are based on punishments and rewards. The Conventional Level, where morality is based on laws and being accepted from peers. The final level, Post Conventional, is where you base morality on ethical principles.
Marcia's identity formation: 4 stages describing different types of identity statuses. The first is identity Moratorium which is where you procrastinate making commitments. Identity Foreclosure is where you follow the crowd in order to fit in. Identity Diffusion is where you are not setting goals and just living life day to day. The last is Identity Achievement where you are trying different options in attempt to find your true identity.

LEQ 2A: Why is adolescence so tumultuous?
When adolescence occurs, there are a lot of changes happening for boys and girls at one time. It can be overwhelming and confusing at first. Girls get their first menstruation and get wider hips. Boys get broader shoulders, and a lower voice. Adolescence can be accompanied with awkwardness.

LEQ 2B: How does birth order affect our behavior?
Those who are born first, are the only ones to have their parents all to themselves. They typically are the guinea pigs, since new parents are just trying to figure things out. First born children typically have more responsibilities to look after younger siblings. Those who are born last tend to be spoiled more and parents know how to raise them better since they have had other children.

LEQ 2C: How do we form our morals and identity?
Our morals and identity are formed as we try new things and discover what works for us. By establishing our occupation and political and religious views we are forming our identity. Sometimes we go through crisis where we examine what we believe, and sometimes may change our beliefs and goals in life.

Concept 3: Adulthood
Words to Know:
Mid-life crisis: A time in an older persons life when they have anxiety about growing older. At this time they go through an emotional change and try to overcome their challenges, sometimes by buying very expensive things.

LEQ 3A: How do adults deal with and respond to the challenges they face?
Adults deal with their challenges differently than children and teenagers. Some adults feel despair about their challenge, while others feel they have lived with integrity. Some adults let their challenges cloud their emotions and can go through a mid-life crisis and buy some expensive thing that they really can not afford.

Erikson's Stage Theory
Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust. Age: Infancey to 18 months old. Conflicts: Feeding
Stage 2: Autonomony vs. Shame and Doubt. Age: 2 and 3 years old. Conflicts: Toilet Training
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt. Age: 3 to 5 years old. Conflicts: Exploration
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority. Age: 6 to 11 years old/ puberty. Conflicts: School
Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion. Age: 12 to 18 years old/ adolescence. Conflicts: Social Relationships
Stage 6: Intamacy vs. Isolation Age: Adulthood. Conflicts: Relationships
Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation. Age: Adulthood. Conflics: Parenting
Stage 7: Integraty vs. Dispair. Age: Adulthood. Conflicts: Life Reflection

Kohlberg's Stage Theory of Moral Development
Stage 1: Orientation: Punishment, right/ wrong determined by what is punished
Stage 2: Orientation: Reward, right/ wrong determined by what is rewarded
Stage 3: Orientation: good girl/boy, right/ wrong determined by inflexible laws of society
Stage 4:Orientation:Authority/right/wrong determined by inflexible laws of society
Stage 5:Orientation:Social Contract right/wrong determined by rules that can be changed to meet the need of the society
Stage 6:Orientation:Individual Principles and Consciences right/wrong determined by what is ethical

Interesting Facts
1) At around the age of six months babies are fascinated with their feet. They also know the difference between up and down.
2) By the age of three, 95% of the brain's capacity is developed.
3) 5-12% of middle aged people have a "classic" mid-life crisis.
4) During adolescence there are huge developments that occur in the brain.
5) By the age of 5 children can pick and choose their own friends.